Seven types of insulation for the home: which one to choose and why

Insulation functions – Reducing heat loss. – Reduced heating and air conditioning costs. – Increased comfort level. – Protection of house elements from freezing. – Reducing the influence of frost heaving forces (in foundations and blind areas).

Why do you need insulation?

Effective thermal insulation material. In terms of its heat-saving ability, 10 cm of mineral insulation is comparable to 44 cm of timber or 198 cm of brickwork. In addition, this material has high fire-fighting characteristics, the melting point exceeds +1000°.

Mineral wool

Due to its fibrous structure, it retains heat well and does not allow noise to pass through, and is also not a favorable environment for microorganisms, insects, and rodents; allows steam to pass through, preventing the greenhouse effect. The elasticity of the material allows it to be used when insulating uneven surfaces. Glass wool is used in the “pie” of walls, floors, and roofs.

Glass wool

It is a loose mass of dry flakes. Manufacturers position the material as a universal, and most importantly, environmentally friendly means for insulating all building structures of the house. The material consists of specially processed cellulose, usually recycled paper, and an adhesive mixture with antiseptic and fire-retardant additives.


Made based on mineral wool. Basalt rock is used as a filler, obtained by high-temperature processing of rocks. This insulation has good density, thermal conductivity, and a high melting point.

Basalt wool

PIR boards do not support combustion, do not spread flame, and can withstand mechanical loads. PIR thermal insulation is most widely used for roof insulation. Installation of the thermal insulation layer is carried out quickly, slopes are formed using wedge-shaped thermal insulation, which significantly reduces the work time.

Polyisocyanurate foam (PIR)

During the production of expanded polystyrene, granules are melted, forming a homogeneous mass. Then a foaming agent is introduced into this mass, and the mass is extruded through an extruder. Thanks to this production method, closed cells of small size are obtained.

Expanded polystyrene (foam)

They are small balls of baked clay. To obtain the desired insulation effect, it must be used in a thick layer – at least 50 cm. Due to its high frost resistance, expanded clay is used to insulate cold floors that are located above unheated basements.

Expanded clay